A genetic (inborn or inherited) disorder, leading to challenges with cognition (thinking) and learning as well as some unique physical, medical and developmental issues.
Trisomy 21 – 3 copies (instead of 2) on chromosome 21 ("tri" means "3" and "somy" refers to "chromosomes"). We all have 26 pairs ("body") chromosomes and "1" pair ("sex") chromosomes – either XX for femal and XY for males.
It's the commonest inherited cause of intellectual disabilities. Researchers have established that the likelihood that a reproductive cell will contain an extra copy of chromosome 21 increases dramatically as a woman ages.
All have resemblance or physical features in common, which makes them easily recognizable: flattened facial profile, upward slant eyes, low muscle tone (this makes them appear open-mouthed as well) and a single deep crease across the centre of 1 or both palms.
Medical Issues, like Congenital Heart Disease. (>80%) abnormalities of the gastrointestinal system, hearing and / or visual impairment, some type/s of hormonal problems e.g. thyroid, intellectual disabilities (mild-moderate-severe).
May not need all types of therapies during life span:
An umbrella term encompassing a group of non-progressive, non-contagious disorders that affect the parts of the brain that control the motor (movement) system.
Injury to the brain may occur prenatally, (e.g. infection in mother or extreme prematurity) during birth (lack of oxygen to the brain during the birth process) or shortly following birth (e.g. brain infection, meningitis) the injury must have occurred before the age of 2.
2 in every 1000 births. (In the US)
Changes in muscle tone, increased or decreased or both; spasticity ("stiffness of joints") and they may have unusual movements that they are unable to control voluntarily. CP may affect 1 limb, one side of the body or all 4 limbs.
Conditions that may accompany or occur at the same time as CP include, visual impairment, challenges with communication (speech maybe difficult to understand), feeding disorders – leading to problems with growth and nutrition, seizures (epilepsy), learning disabilities or intellectual disabilities.
Some persons with CP may have average or above average IQ and be able to do well at school and get a "good job" but may need certain accommodations for their physical challenges.
Clinical Earliest signs – delay in motor skills development. Often several medical evaluations are carried out in order to determine cause and to assess severity.
May not need all types of therapy through out life:
A brain based developmental disability characterized by impaired social interactions and impaired verbal communication and by restricted and repetitive behaviour patterns. Symptoms usually begin before age 3.
Unknown, it is suspected that there might be a combination of genetic vulnerability as well as environmental factors
Dec 2009-CDC-reports 1 in 110 births – varied due to many factors including differences in classification etc.
Autism Spectrum Disorder is one of a group of developmental disorders (Pervasive Developmental Disorders) which include: Classic Autism (Autism Spectrum Disorder) PDD-NOS: Pervasive Developmental Disorder – Not Otherwise Specified Asperger's: "Atypical" Autism, kids with this condition frequently have good language skills, are socially awkward, do not understand social rules, and are of average to above average intellectually. Rett's: (rare) degenerative, very severe affects primarily females.
Appropriately trained professionals via specific clinical criteria.
It's a "hidden" disability which usually is specific to learning challenages in school or other academic settings.
Not well understood and sometimes there is no apparent cause for a learning disability.
CDC cites 16% in boys and 8% in girls having Learning Disorders (LD) or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Report 2003(ADHD)
It's a neurological disorder causing difficulty with sensory processing information from one or several of the five senses or the vestibular (balance) and v/or proprioceptive (the ability to sense the orientation of ones arms or legs in the air) sense.
Exact cause of SPD has not yet been identified.
1 in 6 children may experience sensory symptoms that maybe significant in affecting aspects of daily life.
Problems with eating or sleeping Cannot calm self Over sensitive to touch, smell, taste, noises, other people Difficulty making friends Clumsy, poor motor skills, weak Easily distracted, fidgety, craves movement Poor self-esteem, afraid of failing at new tasks Always on the go, impulsive, easily distractible
May not need all types of therapy through out life: Speech Therapy Occupational Therapy (OT) Physical Therapy or Physiotherapy (PT) Special Education – Some are able to attend a regular or mainstream school and some cases even finish tertiary education. Behaviour Management Specialised Medical Care /Treatments e.g. for seizures, mental health issues